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Grade Introduction:

C-20 carbon steel is an unalloyed low carbon mild steel grade supplied as a hot rolled or bright drawn finish bar. As a low carbon steel grade, it provides low strength with good machinability and is suitable for welding.

Grade Application:

Commonly used for general engineering C-20 is suitable for applications such as bolts, shafts, spacers, hubs, base plates, brackets. fixtures and jigs.

Equivalent grades:

Stocked Product BS 970:1955 British Standards European Werksoff SAE/AISI Lesser Greater
070M20 (070) EN3A EN32 080A15 C15 C20 ST52-3(ST5) S235(S23) S275(S27 & S28) 1.0402 1.0401 1.1151 1020 1023 - LF2 (LF2)

Addition to other grades:

MS, EN1A, EN3B, EN8, EN8D, EN9, EN19, EN24, EN31, EN32B, EN36C, EN41B, EN43B, EN47, EN353, IS2062, 42Crmo4, OHNS, HCHCR, D2, D3, H-11, H-13, CW-1, M2, M35, M42, 2714, SKD-11, P20, P20+S, P20+Ni, SCM 420, ASTM SA-36, ASTM SA-105, SAE 1018, SAE 1020, SAE 4140, SAE 8620, 16MNCR5, 20MNCR5, C35, C40, C45, C50, C60, CK45, 20C8, 40C8, 45C8, 55C8, C55MN75, SAE 52100, S40C, S355J2G3.

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Chemical composition:

The following table shows the chemical composition of C20 steel:

Element C Mn Si S P
Content(%) 0.17-0.23 0.30-0.60 0.10-0.40 ≤0.045 ≤0.045

Mechanical Properties:

Tensile strength 425 MPa 61600 psi
Yield strength 360 MPa 52200 psi
Shear modulus 80.0 GPa 11600 ksi
Bulk modulus 140 GPa 20300 ksi
Elastic modulus 190-210 GPa 27557-30458 ksi
Poisson’s ratio 0.27-0.30 0.27-0.30
Elongation at break 0.15 0.15
Reduction of area 0.4 0.4
Hardness Brinell 121 121
Hardness, Knoop 140 140
Hardness, Rockwell B 68 68
Hardness, Vickers 126 126
Machinability 65 65



Heat Treatment:

When hardening C-20 heat treatment temperatures, including the rate of heating, cooling, and soaking times will vary due to factors such as the shape and size of each component. Other considerations during the heat treatment process include the type of furnace, quenching medium, and workpiece transfer facilities.


As a low carbon steel C-20 is not ideally suited for heat treatment (EN8 or EN9 may be a better-suited option). If hardening is required heat to a temperature of 880-910°C. Quench in water and temper.


Physical Properties

Annealed hardness | HBS: 156 max.
Tensile strength,σb/≥ MPa: 400
Yield strength, σ0.2/≥ MPa: 270
Elongation, δ ≥(%): 27.0
Impact, ≥J /Akv: –

Thermal Properties

Thermal conductivity 51.9 W/mK 360 BTU in/hr.ft².°F

Forging Properties:

Stress Relieving:



C-20 is commonly supplied bright drawn or as rolled. If annealing is required heat to 880-910°C, furnace cool.



Surface ‘ripping’ is more evident in EN3 so lubrication is essential. Fairly high surface speeds should be used with moderate feeds. Screw cutting is easy with cutting oil and achieving a fine finish is achieved with slight polishing. Very nice to weld with good flow and strength.


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