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Grade Introduction:

45C8 Carbon steels have carbon as the key alloying element in their composition. They also contain up to 0.4% silicon and 1.2% manganese. In addition, residual elements such as copper, molybdenum, aluminum, chromium, and nickel are present in these steels.

Grade Application:

45C8 steel grade round bar, steel plate, flat and square is used for axles, bolts, forged connecting rods, crankshafts, torsion bars, light gears, guide rods, screws, forgings, wheel tyres, shafts, sickles, axes, knives, woodworking drills, hammers, etc.

Equivalent grades:

EN8 080A40 CK45 45C8 EN8 1040,1045
EN8A 080A40 CK45 45C8 EN8A 1040, 1045
EN8B 080A40 CK45 45C8 45C8 1040,1045
EN8C 080A40 CK45 45C8 EN8C 1040,1045
EN8D 080A40 CK45 45C8 EN8D 1040,1045

Addition to other grades:

MS, EN1A, EN3B, EN8, EN8D, EN9, EN19, EN24, EN31, EN32B, EN36C, EN41B, EN43B, EN47, EN353, IS2062, 42Crmo4, OHNS, HCHCR, D2, D3, H-11, H-13, CW-1, M2, M35, M42, 2714, SKD-11, P20, P20+S, P20+Ni, SCM 420, ASTM SA-36, ASTM SA-105, SAE 1018, SAE 1020, SAE 4140, SAE 8620, 16MNCR5, 20MNCR5, C20, C35, C40, C45, C50, C60, CK45, 20C8, 40C8, 55C8, C55MN75, SAE 52100, S40C, S355J2G3.

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Chemical composition:

The following table shows the chemical composition of 45C8 steel:

Element C Mn Si S P
Content (%) 0.43 0.74 0.22 0.023 0.030

Mechanical Properties:

Tensile strength Ultimate 660 MPa 95700 psi
Tensile strength Yield 560 MPa 81200 psi
Bulk modulus (typical for steels) 140 GPa 20300 ksi
Shear modulus (typical for steels) 80 GPa 11600 ksi
Elastic modulus 190 – 210 GPa 19700- 30458 ksi
Poisson’s ratio 0.27 -0.30 0.27 – 0.30
Elongation at break (in 50 mm) 0.1 0.1
Reduction of area 0.4 0.4
Hardness, Brinell 197 197
Hardness, Knoop (converted from Brinell hardness) 219 219
Hardness, Rockwell B (converted from Brinell hardness) 92 92
Hardness, Rockwell C (converted from Brinell hardness. Value below normal HRC range, for comparison purposes only) 13 13
Hardness, Vickers (converted from Brinell hardness) 207 207
Machinability (based on AISI 1212 steel. as 100 machinabilities) 55 55



Heat Treatment:


820 – 860°C/Water, Oil


550 – 660°C/air

Physical Properties

Density 7.85 g/cm3 0.284 lb/in³

Thermal Properties

Thermal expansion co-efficient 11 µm/m°C 6.11 µin/in°F
Thermal conductivity 49.8 W/mK 346 BTU in/hr.ft².°F

Forging Properties:

1100 – 850°C/air

Stress Relieving:


840 – 880°C


680 – 710°C/furnace



60 – 28


  1. When welding is completed allow components to cool to 180°C before tempering
  • Heat to 620 – 650°C at a maximum heating rate of 100°C/hr or 6000/thickness (mm) °C/hr, whichever is smaller. Temper for 2 hours. Cool to 200°C at a controlled cooling rate of 100°C/hr maximum. Cool to room temperature in still air. In very highly restrained conditions, it may be necessary to consider an intermediate, lower temperature stress relief treatment.
  • If it is not convenient to hold the component at an intermediate temperature after welding, pending heating for tempering, the following alternative procedures (below) could be applied. However, if restraint is very high this alternative procedure may not prevent the occurrence of hydrogen-induced cracking.

Alternative procedure:
  • Boost the preheat to 250°C and hold for 4 hours minimum.
  • Cool to room temperature at a maximum rate of 50°C/hr.
  • Temper when convenient.

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