SAE 8620

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Grade Introduction:

SAE 8620 Alloy Steel is a low alloy nickel, chromium, molybdenum case hardening steel, generally supplied in the as-rolled condition with a maximum hardness HB 255max. SAE 8620 alloy steel offers high external strength and good internal strength, making it highly wear-resistant. SAE 8620 steel has a higher core strength than grades 8615 and 8617. SAE 8620 alloy steel is flexible during hardening treatments, thus enabling improvement of case/core properties. Prehardened and tempered (uncarbonized) 8620 can be further surface hardened by nitriding but will not respond satisfactorily to flame or induction hardening due to its low carbon content. SAE 8620 alloy steel is suited for applications that require a combination of toughness and wear resistance. This grade is commonly supplied in a round bar.

Grade Application:

The SAE 8620 can be used for a number of medium-strength applications such as camshafts, fasteners, gears, and chains/chain pins.

Equivalent grades:

ASTM A29 DIN 1654 EN 10084 BS 970 JIS G4103
8620 1.6523/21NiCrMo2 1.6523/21NiCrMo2-2 805M20 SNCM220

Addition to other grades:

MS, EN1A, EN3B, EN8, EN8D, EN9, EN19, EN24, EN31, EN32B, EN36C, EN41B, EN43B, EN47, EN353, IS2062, 42Crmo4, HCHCR, OHNS, D2, D3, H-11, H-13, CW-1, M2, M35, M42, 2714, SKD-11, P20, P20+S, P20+Ni, SCM 420, ASTM SA-36, ASTM SA-105, SAE 1018, SAE 1020, SAE 4140, 16MNCR5, 20MNCR5, C20, C35, C40, C45, C50, C60, CK45, 20C8, 40C8, 45C8, 55C8, C55MN75, SAE 52100, S40C, S355J2G3.

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Chemical composition:

The following table shows the chemical composition of SAE8620 steel:

Standard Grade C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo
ASTM A29 8620 0.18-0.23 0.7-0.9 0.035 0.040 0.15-0.35 0.4-0.7 0.4-0.6 0.15-0.25
DIN 1654 1.6523/ 21NiCrMo2 0.17-0.23 0.65-0.95 0.035 0.035 ≦0.40 0.4-0.7 0.4-0.7 0.15-0.25
EN 10084 1.6523/ 21NiCrMo2-2 0.17-0.23 0.65-0.95 0.025 0.035 ≦0.40 0.4-0.7 0.35-0.70 0.15-0.25
JIS G4103 SNCM220 0.17-0.23 0.6-0.9 0.030 0.030 0.15-0.35 0.4-0.7 0.4-0.65 0.15-0.3
BS 970 805M20 0.17-0.23 0.6-095 0.040 0.050 0.1-0.4 0.35-0.75 0.35-0.65 0.15-0.25

Mechanical Properties:

Properties Metric Imperial
Tensile strength 530 MPa 76900 psi
Yield strength 385 MPa 55800 psi
Elastic modulus 190-210 GPa 27557-30458 ksi
Bulk modulus (typical for steel) 140 GPa 20300 ksi
Shear modulus (typical for steel) 80 GPa 11600 ksi
Poisson’s ratio 0.27-0.30 0.27-0.30
Izod Impact 115 J 84.8
Hardness, Brinell 149 149
Hardness, Knoop (converted from Brinell hardness) 169 169
Hardness, Rockwell B (converted from Brinell hardness) 80 80
Hardness, Vickers (converted from Brinell hardness) 155 155
Machinability (hot rolled and cold drawn, based on 100 machinability for AISI 1212 steel) 65 65



Heat Treatment:

This alloy may be hardened by heating to 1500 F followed by a water quench. Carburize at 1650 to 1700 F in an appropriate carburizing medium and oil quench to harden. Improved carburized case and core properties can be obtained by furnace cooling from carburizing at 1650 – 1700 F and then reheating to 1575 F.


The AISI steel 8620 will be austenitized at around 840°C – 870°C, and oil or water quenched depending upon section size and intricacy. Cool in Air or Oil required.


Tempering of heat-treated and water quenched parts of SAE 8620 steel (not carburized) is done at 400 F to 1300 F to improve case toughness with minimal effect on its hardness. This will also reduce the possibility of grinding cracks.

Physical Properties

The physical properties of SAE 8620 alloy steel are highlighted in the following table.

Properties Metric Imperial
Density 7.85 g/cm3 0.284 lb/in³

Thermal Properties

Properties Metric Imperial
Thermal conductivity 46.6 W/mK 323 BTU in/hr.ft².°F

Forging Properties:

SAE 8620 alloy steel is forged at a start temperature of around 2250ºF (1230ºC) down to approximately 1700ºF(925ºC.) prior to the hardening heat treatment or carburizing. The alloy is air cooled after forging.

Stress Relieving:

Heat to 630°C – 650°C, hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section, soak for 1 hour per 25mm section, and cool in still air.


1675ºF (910ºC) and air cool. This is another method of improving machinability in 8620 material; normalizing might also be used prior to case hardening.


AISI 8620 steel may be given a full anneal by heat to 820℃ – 850℃, and hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section and cool in the furnace or air-cooled.


Density (lb / cu. in.) 0.283


The SAE 8620 alloy steel is readily machined after heat treatment and/or carburizing, should be at a minimum so as not to impair the hardened case of the part. Machining may be done by conventional means prior to heat treatment – after carburizing machining is usually limited to grinding.


The alloy SAE 8620 may be welded as-rolled condition by conventional methods, usually gas or arc welding. Preheating at 400 F is beneficial and subsequent heating after welding is recommended – consult the approved weld procedure for the method used.

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